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High CO2 reduces the settlement of a spawning coral on three common species of crustose coralline algae
Concern about the impacts of ocean acidification (OA) on ecosystem function has prompted many studies to focus on larval recruitment, demonstrating declines in settlement and early growth at elevated CO2 concentrations. Since larval settlement is often driven by particular cues governed by crustose coralline algae (CCA), it is important to determine whether OA reduces larval recruitment with specific CCA and the generality of any effects.
Increasing atmospheric CO2 can decrease the seawater pH and carbonate ions, which may adversely affect the larval survival of calcareous animals. In this study, we simulated future atmospheric CO2 concentrations (800, 1500, 2000 and 3000 $μ$atm) and examined the effects of ocean acidification on the embryonic and larval stage of an infaunal clam Paphia undulate. Significant decrease of hatching of P.
Effects of elevated pCO2 on the survival, growth, and moulting of the Pacific krill species, Euphausia pacifica
While ocean acidification (OA) is expected to have wide-ranging negative effects on marine species, organisms currently living in variable pH environments that expose them intermittently to pH values approaching those predicted for the future, may be better adapted to tolerate prolonged exposure to high pCO 2 levels caused by OA. Seasonal upwelling brings low pH water to the surface along the Pacific Coast of North America.
Persistence of positive carryover effects in the oyster, Saccostrea glomerata, following transgenerational exposure to ocean acidification
Ocean acidification (OA) is predicted to have widespread implications for marine organisms, yet the capacity for species to acclimate or adapt over this century remains unknown. Recent transgenerational studies have shown that for some marine species, exposure of adults to OA can facilitate positive carryover effects to their larval and juvenile offspring that help them to survive in acidifying oceanic conditions. But whether these positive carryover effects can persist into adulthood or the next generation is unknown.
Early benthic juvenile Parvulastra exigua (Asteroidea) are tolerant to extreme acidification and warming in its intertidal habitat
Habitat warming and acidification experienced by intertidal invertebrates are potentially detrimental to sensitive early post-larvae of benthic marine invertebrates. To determine the potential impact of acidification and warming on a conspicuous component of the temperate intertidal fauna of the southern hemisphere, the response of newly metamorphosed juvenile (ca. 450 $μ$m diameter) sea stars (Parvulastra exigua) to increased acidification and temperature was investigated with respect to conditions recorded in the habitat (− 0.4–0.6 pH units, + 2-4 °C), in all combinations of stressors.
Sponge bioerosion on changing reefs: ocean warming poses physiological constraints to the success of a photosymbiotic excavating sponge
Excavating sponges are prominent bioeroders on coral reefs that in comparison to other benthic organisms may suffer less or may even benefit from warmer, more acidic and more eutrophic waters. Here, the photosymbiotic excavating sponge Cliona orientalis from the Great Barrier Reef was subjected to a prolonged simulation of both global and local environmental change: future seawater temperature, partial pressure of carbon dioxide (as for 2100 summer conditions under "business-as-usual" emissions), and diet supplementation with particulate organics.
Putting prey and predator into the CO2 equation – qualitative and quantitative effects of ocean acidification on predator–prey interactions
Little is known about the impact of ocean acidification on predator–prey dynamics. Herein, we examined the effect of carbon dioxide (CO2) on both prey and predator by letting one predatory reef fish interact for 24 h with eight small or large juvenile damselfishes from four congeneric species. Both prey and predator were exposed to control or elevated levels of CO2. Mortality rate and predator selectivity were compared across CO2 treatments, prey size and species. Small juveniles of all species sustained greater mortality at high CO2 levels, while large recruits were not affected.
Warmer more acidic conditions cause decreased productivity and calcification in subtropical coral reef sediment-dwelling calcifiers
The effects of elevated CO2 and temperature on photosynthesis and calcification in the calcifying algae Halimeda macroloba and Halimeda cylindracea and the symbiont-bearing benthic foraminifera Marginopora vertebralis were investigated through exposure to a combination of four temperatures (28°C, 30°C, 32°C, and 34°C) and four CO2 levels (39, 61, 101, and 203 Pa; pH 8.1, 7.9, 7.7, and 7.4, respectively). Elevated CO2 caused a profound decline in photosynthetic efficiency (FV : FM), calcification, and growth in all species. After five weeks at 34°C under all CO2 levels, all species died.
Assessment of ocean acidification and warming on the growth, calcification, and biophotonics of a California grass shrimp
Cryptic colouration in crustaceans, important for both camouflage and visual communication, is achieved through physiological and morphological mechanisms that are sensitive to changes in environmental conditions. Consequently, ocean warming and ocean acidification can affect crustaceans' biophotonic appearance and exoskeleton composition in ways that might disrupt colouration and transparency.
Seawater acidification induced immune function changes of haemocytes in Mytilus edulis: a comparative study of CO2 and HCl enrichment
The present study was performed to evaluate the effects of CO2- or HCl-induced seawater acidification (pH 7.7 or 7.1; control: pH 8.1) on haemocytes of Mytilus edulis, and the changes in the structure and immune function were investigated during a 21-day experiment. The results demonstrated that seawater acidification had little effect on the cellular mortality and granulocyte proportion but damaged the granulocyte ultrastructure. Phagocytosis of haemocytes was also significantly inhibited in a clearly concentration-dependent manner, demonstrating that the immune function was affected.
Synergistic effects of elevated carbon dioxide and sodium hypochlorite on survival and impairment of three phytoplankton species
Sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) is widely used to disinfect seawater in power plant cooling systems in order to reduce biofouling, and in ballast water treatment systems to prevent transport of exotic marine species. While the toxicity of NaOCl is expected to increase by ongoing ocean acidification, and many experimental studies have shown how algal calcification, photosynthesis and growth respond to ocean acidification, no studies have investigated the relationship between NaOCl toxicity and increased CO2.
Ocean acidification stress index for shellfish (OASIS): Linking Pacific oyster larval survival and exposure to variable carbonate chemistry regimes
Understanding larval bivalve responses to variable regimes of seawater carbonate chemistry requires realistic quantification of physiological stress. Based on a degree-day modeling approach, we developed a new metric, the ocean acidification stress index for shellfish (OASIS), for this purpose. OASIS integrates over the entire larval period the instantaneous stress associated with deviations from published sensitivity thresholds to aragonite saturation state ($Ømega$Ar) while experiencing variable carbonate chemistry.
The pteropod Limacina helicina frequently experiences seasonal exposure to corrosive conditions ($Ømega$ar \textless 1) along the US West Coast and is recognized as one of the species most susceptible to ocean acidification (OA). Yet, little is known about their capacity to acclimatize to such conditions. We collected pteropods in the California Current Ecosystem (CCE) that differed in the severity of exposure to $Ømega$ar conditions in the natural environment.
Boosted nutritional quality of food by CO2 enrichment fails to offset energy demand of herbivores under ocean warming, causing energy depletion and mortality
The CO2-boosted trophic transfer from primary producers to herbivores has been increasingly discovered at natural CO2 vents and in laboratory experiments. Despite the emerging knowledge of this boosting effect, we do not know the extent to which it may be enhanced or dampened by ocean warming. We investigated whether ocean acidification and warming enhance the nutritional quality (C:N ratio) and energy content of turf algae, which is speculated to drive higher feeding rate, greater energy budget and eventually faster growth of herbivores.
Symbiodinium mitigate the combined effects of hypoxia and acidification on a non-calcifying cnidarian
Anthropogenic nutrient inputs enhance microbial respiration within many coastal ecosystems, driving concurrent hypoxia and acidification. During photosynthesis, Symbiodinium spp., the microalgal endosymbionts of cnidarians and other marine phyla, produce O2 and assimilate CO2 , and thus potentially mitigate the exposure of the host to these stresses. However, such a role for Symbiodinium remains untested for non-calcifying cnidarians.
Impaired learning of predators and lower prey survival under elevated CO2: a consequence of neurotransmitter interference
Ocean acidification is one of the most pressing environmental concerns of our time, and not surprisingly, we have seen a recent explosion of research into the physiological impacts and ecological consequences of changes in ocean chemistry. We are gaining considerable insights from this work, but further advances require greater integration across disciplines. Here we showed that projected near-future CO2 levels impaired the ability of damselfish to learn the identity of predators.
Elevated seawater CO2 concentrations impair larval development and reduce larval survival in endangered northern abalone (Haliotis kamtschatkana)
Increasing levels of anthropogenic carbon dioxide in the world's oceans are resulting in a decrease in the availability of carbonate ions and a drop in seawater pH. This process, known as ocean acidification, is a potential threat to marine populations via alterations in survival and development. To date, however, little research has examined the effects of ocean acidification on rare or endangered species. To begin to assess the impacts of acidification on endangered northern abalone (Haliotis kamtschatkana) populations, we exposed H.
Laboratory simulation reveals significant impacts of ocean acidification on microbial community composition and host-pathogen interactions between the blood clam and Vibrio harveyi
It has been suggested that climate change may promote the outbreaks of diseases in the sea through altering the host susceptibility, the pathogen virulence, and the host-pathogen interaction. However, the impacts of ocean acidification (OA) on the pathogen components of bacterial community and the host-pathogen interaction of marine bivalves are still poorly understood.