Ocean acidification hampers sperm-egg collisions, gamete fusion, and generation of Ca 2+ oscillations of a broadcast spawning bivalve, Tegillarca granosa
Although the effect of ocean acidification on fertilization success of marine organisms is increasingly well documented, the underlying mechanisms are not completely understood. The fertilization success of broadcast spawning invertebrates depends on successful sperm-egg collisions, gamete fusion, and standard generation of Ca2+ oscillations.
Expression of calcification and metabolism-related genes in response to elevated pCO2 and temperature in the reef-building coral Acropora millepora
Declining health of scleractinian corals in response to deteriorating environmental conditions is widely acknowledged, however links between physiological and functional genomic responses of corals are less well understood. Here we explore growth and the expression of 20 target genes with putative roles in metabolism and calcification in the branching coral, Acropora millepora, in two separate experiments: 1) elevated pCO2 (464, 822, 1187 and 1638 $μ$atm) and ambient temperature (27 °C), and 2) elevated pCO2 (490 and 822 $μ$atm) and temperature (28 and 31 °C).
Impacts of groundwater discharge at Myora Springs (North Stradbroke Island, Australia) on the phenolic metabolism of eelgrass, Zostera muelleri, and grazing by the juvenile rabbitfish, Siganus fuscescens
Myora Springs is one of many groundwater discharge sites on North Stradbroke Island (Queensland, Australia). Here spring waters emerge from wetland forests to join Moreton Bay, mixing with seawater over seagrass meadows dominated by eelgrass, Zostera muelleri. We sought to determine how low pH / high CO2 conditions near the spring affect these plants and their interactions with the black rabbitfish (Siganus fuscescens), a co-occurring grazer. In paired-choice feeding trials S. fuscescens preferentially consumed Z. muelleri shoots collected nearest to Myora Springs.
Ocean acidification and warming are predicted to affect the ability of marine bivalves to build their shells, but little is known about the underlying mechanisms. Shell formation is an extremely complex process requiring a detailed understanding of biomineralization processes. Sodium incorporation into the shells would increase if bivalves rely on the exchange of Na+/H+ to maintain homeostasis for shell formation, thereby shedding new light on the acid-base and ionic regulation at the calcifying front.
Production of CO2-tolerant microalgae have received much attention as well as physicochemical fixation of CO2 in industrial flue gas. Although many microalgae that are tolerant to high levels of CO2 have been found and evaluated, the CO2 concentration for their good growth is generally lower than their maximum tolerable CO2 level. In the present study, we attempted to isolate microalgae capable of growing in high levels of CO2 (high-level-CO2-preferring microalgae, HCP-microalgae). We used a CO2-permeable polystyrene bottle for the enrichment of HCP-microalgae in environmental samples.
Ocean acidification and pathogen exposure modulate the immune response of the edible mussel Mytilus chilensis
Ocean acidification (OA) is one of the main consequences of increasing atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2), impacting key biological processes of marine organisms such as development, growth and immune response. However, there are scarce studies on the influence of OA on marine invertebrates' ability to cope with pathogens. This study evaluated the single and combined effects of OA and bacterial infection on the transcription expression of genes related to antioxidant system, antimicrobial peptides and pattern recognition receptors in the edible mussel Mytilus chilensis. Individuals of M.
Persistence of positive carryover effects in the oyster, Saccostrea glomerata, following transgenerational exposure to ocean acidification
Ocean acidification (OA) is predicted to have widespread implications for marine organisms, yet the capacity for species to acclimate or adapt over this century remains unknown. Recent transgenerational studies have shown that for some marine species, exposure of adults to OA can facilitate positive carryover effects to their larval and juvenile offspring that help them to survive in acidifying oceanic conditions. But whether these positive carryover effects can persist into adulthood or the next generation is unknown.
Metabolic responses of the North Pacific krill, Euphausia pacifica, to short- and long-term pCO2 exposure
While ocean acidification is likely to have major effects on many marine organisms, those species that regularly experience variable pCO2 environments may be more tolerant of future predicted changes in ocean chemistry. Euphausia pacifica is an abundant krill species along the Pacific coast of North America and one that regularly experiences varying pCO2 levels during seasonal upwelling, as well as during daily vertical migrations to depth where pCO2 is higher.
Respiratory response of the intertidal seastar Parvulastra exigua to contemporary and near-future pulses of warming and hypercapnia
As typical of intertidal invertebrates the asterinid seastar Parvulastra exigua experiences marked variation in environmental temperature and pH/pCO2 due to tidal exchange and diurnal patterns of photosynthesis and respiration. We characterized the temperature and pH/pCO2 conditions in the mid-intertidal, rocky-shore habitat of this species and used these data along with projections for the ocean over coming decades to define treatments in oxygen consumption experiments. The metabolic response of P.
The detrimental effects of CO2-driven chronic acidification on juvenile Pacific abalone (Haliotis discus hannai)
To test the effects of chronic stress caused by CO2-driven decreases in pH (NBS scale) on molluscs, juvenile Pacific abalone (Haliotis discus hannai), an economically important gastropod, were cultured at pH 8.1 (control), pH 7.9 or 7.7 for 3 months. Eroded shell surfaces, reduced growth rates, and altered biochemical composition and energy metabolism were found in abalone cultured in acidified conditions.
Sponge bioerosion on changing reefs: ocean warming poses physiological constraints to the success of a photosymbiotic excavating sponge
Excavating sponges are prominent bioeroders on coral reefs that in comparison to other benthic organisms may suffer less or may even benefit from warmer, more acidic and more eutrophic waters. Here, the photosymbiotic excavating sponge Cliona orientalis from the Great Barrier Reef was subjected to a prolonged simulation of both global and local environmental change: future seawater temperature, partial pressure of carbon dioxide (as for 2100 summer conditions under "business-as-usual" emissions), and diet supplementation with particulate organics.
Marine acidification will be an important environmental problem in the near future as a result of persistent emissions of CO2 and dissolution into seawater. In this study, we found that calcification and respiration of the Zhikong scallop (Chlamys farreri) are likely to be severely affected by increasing acidification. Calcification and respiration significantly declined as pH decreased. The calcification rate decreased by 33% when the pH of water was 7.9 compared with a pH of 8.1, and decreased close to 0 when the pH was reduced to 7.3.
Morphology and classification of hemocytes in Pinctada fucata and their responses to ocean acidification and warming
Hemocytes play important roles in the innate immune response and biomineralization of bivalve mollusks. However, the hemocytes in pearl oysters are poorly understood. In the present study, we investigated the morphology and classification of hemocytes in the pearl oyster, P. fucata. Three types of hemocytes were successfully obtained by light microscopy, electron microscopy and flow cytometry methods: small hyalinocytes, large hyalinocytes and granulocytes. The small hyalinocytes are the major hemocyte population.
Anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions simultaneously increase ocean temperatures and reduce ocean surface pH, a process termed ocean acidification (OA). OA is expected to negatively affect the growth and physiology of many calcified organisms, but the response of non-calcified (fleshy) organisms is less well understood. Rising temperatures and pCO2 can enhance photosynthetic rates (within tolerance limits). Therefore, warming may interact with OA to alter biological responses of macroalgae in complicated ways.
Alterations in predation pressure can have large effects on trophically-structured systems. Modification of predator behaviour via ocean warming has been assessed by laboratory experimentation and metabolic theory. However, the influence of ocean acidification with ocean warming remains largely unexplored for mesopredators, including experimental assessments that incorporate key components of the assemblages in which animals naturally live.
Effects of ocean acidification on the metabolic rates of three species of bivalve from southern coast of China
Oceanic uptake of anthropogenic carbon dioxide results in a decrease in seawater pH, a process known as “ocean acidification”. The pearl oyster Pinctada fucata, the noble scallop Chlamys nobilis, and the green-lipped mussel Perna viridis are species of economic and ecological importance along the southern coast of China. We evaluated the effects of seawater acidification on clearance, respiration, and excretion rates in these three species. The ammals were reared in seawater at pH 8.1 (control), 7.7, or 7.4. The clearance rate was highest at pH 7.7 for P. fucata and at pH 8.1 for C.
An ocean acidification acclimatised green tide alga is robust to changes of seawater carbon chemistry but vulnerable to light stress
Ulva is the dominant genus in the green tide events and is considered to have efficient CO2 concentrating mechanisms (CCMs). However, little is understood regarding the impacts of ocean acidification on the CCMs of Ulva and the consequences of thalli's acclimation to ocean acidification in terms of responding to environmental factors. Here, we grew a cosmopolitan green alga, Ulva linza at ambient (LC) and elevated (HC) CO2 levels and investigated the alteration of CCMs in U. linza grown at HC and its responses to the changed seawater carbon chemistry and light intensity.
Elevated pCO2 threatens coral reefs through impaired calcification. However, the extent to which elevated pCO2 affects the distribution of the pelagic larvae of scleractinian corals, and how this may be interpreted in the context of ocean acidification (OA), remains unknown. We tested the hypothesis that elevated pCO2 affects one aspect of the behavior (i.e., motility) of brooded larvae from Pocillopora damicornis in Okinawa (Japan), and used UV-transparent tubes that were 68-cm long (45 mm ID) to incubate larvae on a shallow fringing reef.
Saturating light and not increased carbon dioxide under ocean acidification drives photosynthesis and growth in (Chlorophyta)
Carbon physiology of a genetically identified Ulva rigida was investigated under different CO2(aq) and light levels. The study was designed to answer whether (1) light or exogenous inorganic carbon (Ci) pool is driving growth; and (2) elevated CO2(aq) concentration under ocean acidification (OA) will downregulate CAext-mediated inline image dehydration and alter the stable carbon isotope ($δ$13C) signatures toward more CO2 use to support higher growth rate.
In the California Current ecosystem, global climate change is predicted to trigger large-scale changes in ocean chemistry within this century. Ocean acidification-which occurs when increased levels of atmospheric CO2 dissolve into the ocean-is one of the biggest potential threats to marine life.