Climate change is expected to exacerbate upwelling intensity and natural acidification in Eastern Boundaries Upwelling Systems (EBUS). Conducted between January-September 2015 in a nearshore site of the northern Humboldt Current System directly exposed to year-round upwelling episodes, this study was aimed at assessing the relationship between upwelling mediated pH-changes and functional traits of the numerically dominant planktonic copepod-grazer Acartia tonsa (Copepoda).
We test for trace element proxies in the high-magnesium calcite fraction of bamboo coral internodes by comparing environmental conditions and growth rates to the specimen-mean compositions of 73 corals that were live-caught at depths ranging from 3 to 3950 m and collected from habitats ranging from tropical coral reefs to the Antarctic slope.Comparisons were done at a large geographic scale (LGS) and for a well sampled area south of Australia, across depths at a single site, in order to help separate the effects of environmental variables that co-vary at one spatial scale, but not the other
Ocean acidification and warming are predicted to affect the ability of marine bivalves to build their shells, but little is known about the underlying mechanisms. Shell formation is an extremely complex process requiring a detailed understanding of biomineralization processes. Sodium incorporation into the shells would increase if bivalves rely on the exchange of Na+/H+ to maintain homeostasis for shell formation, thereby shedding new light on the acid-base and ionic regulation at the calcifying front.
While ocean acidification (OA) is expected to have wide-ranging negative effects on marine species, organisms currently living in variable pH environments that expose them intermittently to pH values approaching those predicted for the future, may be better adapted to tolerate prolonged exposure to high pCO 2 levels caused by OA. Seasonal upwelling brings low pH water to the surface along the Pacific Coast of North America.
With respect to their sensitivity to ocean acidification, calcifiers such as the coccolithophore Emiliania huxleyi have received special attention, as the process of calcification seems to be particularly sensitive to changes in the marine carbonate system. For E. huxleyi, apparently conflicting results regarding its sensitivity to ocean acidification have been published (Iglesias-Rodriguez et al., 2008a; Riebesell et al., 2000). As possible causes for discrepancies, intra-specific variability and different effects of CO2 manipulation methods, i.e.
Skeletal growth records in annually banded massive coral skeletons are an under-exploited archive of coral responses to environmental changes. Average linear extension and calcification rates in Indo-Pacific Porites are linearly related to average water temperatures through 23 to 30¯C. Assessing long-term trends in Porites extension and density requires caution as there is evidence of an age effect whereby in earlier growth years corals will tend to extend less and form a higher density skeleton than in later years. This does not appear to affect calcification rates.
Anthropogenically-modulated reductions in pH, termed ocean acidification, could pose a major threat to the physiological performance, stocks, and biodiversity of calcifiers and may devalue their ecosystem services. Recent debate has focussed on the need to develop approaches to arrest the potential negative impacts of ocean acidification on ecosystems dominated by calcareous organisms. In this study, we demonstrate the role of a discrete (i.e.
Anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions simultaneously increase ocean temperatures and reduce ocean surface pH, a process termed ocean acidification (OA). OA is expected to negatively affect the growth and physiology of many calcified organisms, but the response of non-calcified (fleshy) organisms is less well understood. Rising temperatures and pCO2 can enhance photosynthetic rates (within tolerance limits). Therefore, warming may interact with OA to alter biological responses of macroalgae in complicated ways.
Turf algal assemblages are ubiquitous primary producers on coral reefs, but little is known about the response of this diverse group to ocean acidification (OA) across different temperatures. We tested the hypothesis that CO2 influences the functional response of epilithic and endolithic turf assemblages to increasing temperature. Replicate carbonate plugs covered by turf were collected from the reef and exposed to ambient and high pCO2 (1000 µatm) conditions for 3 weeks.
The cheilostome bryozoan Melicerita chathamensis from the continental shelf around southern New Zealand is unusual in having macroscopic annual growth checks. It thus presents an opportunity to examine annual variations in age, growth, calcification and carbonate mineralogy in a temperate bryozoan. Forty-one colonies dredged south of Snares Islands, New Zealand (47° 49.537′S, 166° 45.910′E, 166 m water depth, 2 February 2008) ranged from 2 to 9 years old and were up to 40 mm long.
Ulva is the dominant genus in the green tide events and is considered to have efficient CO2 concentrating mechanisms (CCMs). However, little is understood regarding the impacts of ocean acidification on the CCMs of Ulva and the consequences of thalli's acclimation to ocean acidification in terms of responding to environmental factors. Here, we grew a cosmopolitan green alga, Ulva linza at ambient (LC) and elevated (HC) CO2 levels and investigated the alteration of CCMs in U. linza grown at HC and its responses to the changed seawater carbon chemistry and light intensity.
Carbon physiology of a genetically identified Ulva rigida was investigated under different CO2(aq) and light levels. The study was designed to answer whether (1) light or exogenous inorganic carbon (Ci) pool is driving growth; and (2) elevated CO2(aq) concentration under ocean acidification (OA) will downregulate CAext-mediated inline image dehydration and alter the stable carbon isotope ($δ$13C) signatures toward more CO2 use to support higher growth rate.
Exposure of the toxigenic dinoflagellate Alexandrium catenella to variations in pCO2/pH, comparable to current and near-future levels observed in Southern Chilean fjords, revealed potential functional adaptation mechanisms. Under calculated conditions for pH(total scale) and pCO2 ranging from 7.73–8.66 to 69.7–721.3 $μ$atm, respectively, the Chilean strain Q09 presented an optimum growth rate and dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) uptake at near-equilibrium pCO2/pH conditions (∼8.1).
Population outbreaks of the corallivorous crown-of-thorns starfish, Acanthaster planci, are a major contributor to the decline in coral reef across the Indo-Pacific. The success of A. planci and other reef species in a changing ocean will be influenced by juvenile performance because the naturally high mortality experienced at this sensitive life history stage maybe exacerbated by ocean warming and acidification. We investigated the effects of increased temperature and acidification on growth of newly metamorphosed juvenile A.
This study investigated the impact of photon flux and elevated CO2 concentrations on growth and photosynthetic electron transport on the marine diatom Chaetoceros muelleri and looked for evidence for the presence of a CO2-concentrating mechanism (CCM). pH drift experiments clearly showed that C. muelleri has the capacity to use bicarbonate to acquire inorganic carbon through one or multiple CCMs. The final pH achieved in unbuffered cultures was not changed by light intensity, even under very low photon flux, implying a low energy demand of bicarbonate use via a CCM.
Hizikia fusiforme (Harv.) Okamura (brown seaweed) was cultured using aeration with two CO2 conditions: outdoor air (actual atmospheric CO2 concentration, averaging 360 $μ$l l-1) and CO2-enriched air (averaging 700 $μ$l l-1), to investigate the possible adjustments of elevated atmospheric CO2 to the growth, photosynthesis and nitrogen metabolism in this mariculture species. Aeration with CO2-enriched air reduced the pH in the culture medium in comparison with aeration with air. The mean relative growth rate was enhanced when H. fusiforme was grown at high CO2 with respect to normal CO2.
Multiple aspects of climate change are expected to co-occur such that ocean acidification will take place in conjunction with warming and a range of trophic changes. Previous studies have demonstrated that nutritional condition plays a significant role in the responses of invertebrates to ocean acidification, but similar studies have yet to be conducted with marine fishes. In this study, we examined the potential interactive effects of elevated CO2 levels and nutritional stress on the growth and development of northern rock sole (Lepidopsetta polyxystra).
Ocean acidification driven by rising levels of CO2 impairs calcification, threatening coral reef growth. Predicting how corals respond to CO2 requires a better understanding of how calcification is controlled. Here we show how spatial variations in the pH of the internal calcifying fluid (pHcf) in coral (Stylophora pistillata) colonies correlates with differential sensitivity of calcification to acidification. Coral apexes had the highest pHcf and experienced the smallest changes in pHcf in response to acidification.
The absorption of anthropogenic CO2 by the oceans is causing a reduction in the pH of the surface waters termed ocean acidification (OA). This could have substantial effects on marine coastal environments where fleshy (non-calcareous) macroalgae are dominant primary producers and ecosystem engineers. Few OA studies have focused on the early life stages of large macroalgae such as kelps. This study evaluated the effects of seawater pH on the ontogenic development of meiospores of the native kelp Macrocystis pyrifera and the invasive kelp Undaria pinnatifida, in south-eastern New Zealand.
We tested the hypothesis that ocean acidification (OA) affects spatial competition among scleractinian corals. Competitive ability was evaluated indirectly by linear extension of Porites lutea and Montipora aequituberculata placed in intraspecific, interspecific, and control pairings (paired with dead coral skeleton) and exposed to ambient (̃400 µatm) and elevated (\̃1000 µatm) pCO2 in experiments conducted in Moorea, French Polynesia, and Okinawa, Japan. High pCO2 had no effect on linear extension of M.